), and other organizations directly linked to the SPD and the labor unions, or else adhering to Social Democratic ideology. Aus Protest gegen die Fortführung des Ersten Weltkriegs brachen in zahlreichen Städten Streiks und Demonstrationen aus. On 15 December, Ebert and General Groener had troops ordered to Berlin to prevent this convention and to regain control of the capital. They were immediately arrested and handed over to the largest Freikorps, the heavily armed Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division. November 1918: Kiel befindet sich in der Hand aufständischer Matrosen. Die Kämpfe über zukünftige Form und Aussehen des Deutschen Staates zogen sich noch bis weit in das Jahr 1919 hinein. Jahrhundert Stationen gemeinsamer Geschichte, Orte der Erinnerung – Das 20. The extreme right had a completely opposite perception. Novemberrevolution 1918/19 in Berlin, Verlauf, Geschichte, Personen, Schauplätze, Literatur, Dokumente, Links A large part of the bourgeoisie and the old elites from big industry, landowners, military, judiciary and administration never accepted the democratic republic and hoped to get rid of it at the first opportunity. The historian and publicist Sebastian Haffner in turn came out against Tucholsky and Rathenau. In 1928 he wrote in "November Coup": The German Revolution of 1918 took place in a hall. The USPD received only 7.6% of the vote and sent 22 deputies into the parliament. Nobody heeded the public appeals. This was a first defeat. As of mid-November, this caused continuing strife with the Executive Council. Die Novemberrevolution von 1918/19 führte in der Endphase des Ersten Weltkrieges zum Sturz der Monarchie im Deutschen Reich und zu dessen Umwandlung in eine parlamentarische Demokratie, die Weimarer Republik. In most cases, SPD members had been elected into the councils who regarded their job as an interim solution. The USPD deputies were unable to reach a decision that day. This assembly was to decide upon the state system. Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, the SPD, like other socialist parties in Europe, organised anti-war demonstrations during the July Crisis. The January revolt claimed 156 lives in Berlin. The squadron commander Vice-Admiral Kraft carried out a maneuver with his battleships in Heligoland Bight. Novemberrevolution; Durchblicker-Antworten1; Filme im Unterricht - Infos und Tipps. Sailors in a large barracks compound in a northern district mutinied: after a divisional inspection by the commander, spontaneous demonstrations took place. But this plan was overtaken by the rapidly deteriorating situation in Berlin. On the same evening, the SPD deputy Gustav Noske arrived in Kiel and was welcomed enthusiastically, but he had orders from the new government and the SPD leadership to bring the uprising under control. Nevertheless, the mass protest turned into a general revolt. Richard Müller, the Revolutionary Shop Stewards and the Origins of the Council Movement, Brill Publications 2014, pp. Die Umbrüche im Deutschen Reich nach dem verlorenen Ersten Weltkrieg werden aufgrund ihres Ausbruchsmonats Novemberrevolution genannt. The revolutionaries disagreed among themselves about the future economic and political system. Although he was not permitted to speak in the Reichstag to explain his vote, what he had planned to say was made public through the circulation of a leaflet that was claimed to be unlawful: The present war was not willed by any of the nations participating in it and it is not waged in the interest of the Germans or any other people. Oktober 1918 zu einem Flottenbefehl gegen England auf. Die Novemberrevolution im Jahr 1918 beendete die Zeit des Deutschen Kaiserreichs. The nationalists soon defamed the revolutionaries (and even politicians like Ebert who never wanted a revolution and did everything to prevent it) as "November Criminals" (Novemberverbrecher [de]). The continuation of duties ensured and no run on the banks! What happened on November 4, 1918. The perpetrators for the most part went unpunished. The time after the so called „Weimarer Republik“ was a horrible place for m This new interpretation of the German Revolution gained acceptance in research rather quickly even though older perceptions remained alive. Ob dieser Lage hoffnungslos, breitete sich eine Meuterei von Matrosen über Soldaten und Arbeiter aus. An "Arbitration Committee" (Schlichtungsausschuss) was to mediate future conflicts between employers and unions. On that Sunday, every Berlin factory and every regiment was to elect workers' and soldiers' councils that were then in turn to elect a revolutionary government from members of the two labour parties (SPD and USPD). The majority still hoped to gain power by continued agitation in the factories and from "pressure from the streets". On the left, the actions of the SPD Leadership during the revolution drove many of its former adherents to the Communists. It was this loyalty that now gave them the reputation of being in favor of the Spartacists. This revolt was not just a mutiny anymore, it was a true revolution....As in any revolution, the old order was replaced by the beginnings of a new one. Der Matrosenaufstand von Kiel hatte sich ausgebreitet. On 11 November, the Centre Party deputy Matthias Erzberger, on behalf of Berlin, signed the armistice agreement in Compiègne, France, and World War I came to an end. The strike was organized by a group called the Revolutionary Stewards (Revolutionäre Obleute), led by their spokesman Richard Müller. Because of his attempts to organise objectors against the war, he was expelled from the SPD, and in June 1916, he was sentenced on a charge of high treason to four years in prison. The moderate SPD leadership noted that a determined and well-managed group of the Bolshevik type might well try to seize power in Germany, quite possibly with Bolshevik help, and they moved their behavior towards the left as the German Revolution approached. The governor of the naval station, Wilhelm Souchon, was compelled to negotiate. They themselves were now disbanded and integrated into the newly formed Freikorps. Certainly, the authors also excluded a "relapse to the positions of the 1950s: "The councils were neither communist oriented to a large extent nor can the policies of the majority SPD in every aspect be labelled fortuitous and worth praising. As a precondition for negotiations, he demanded the retreat of Germany from all occupied territories, the cessation of submarine activities and (implicitly) the emperor's abdication. Consistently, the founding of the KPD (Communist Party of Germany) was declared to be the decisive turning point in German history, but in spite of ideological bias, historical research in the GDR expanded detailed knowledge of the German Revolution.[31]. In his cabinet, Social Democrats dominated. The SPD leadership worked with the old administration rather than with the new Workers' and Soldiers' Councils, because it considered them incapable of properly supplying the needs of the population. In the 1960s, they shifted to its revolutionary beginnings, realising that the decisions and developments during the revolution were central to the failure of the first German Republic. But the KPD activists mostly failed in their endeavour to win over the troops. Thus, the "Myth of the Stab in the Back" was born, according to which the revolutionaries stabbed the army, "undefeated on the field", in the back and only then turned the almost secure victory into a defeat. Again, the sailors did not take advantage of the situation. Read Article. In addition, he recommended the acceptance of the main demand of Wilson to put the Imperial Government on a democratic footing in hopes of more favourable peace terms. When Adolf Hitler planned his attempted coup d'état of 1923 in collaboration with Ludendorff, the heavily symbolic date of 9 November (the anniversary of the proclamation of the republic he was trying to overthrow) was chosen for its launch. Blog. In 1921 and 1922, Matthias Erzberger and Walter Rathenau were shot by members of the ultra-nationalist Organisation Consul. He was certain that the SPD would be able to implement its reform plans in the future due to its parliamentary majorities. They had established contact with the USPD Local (Dittmann), which then disavowed them during the repression of their summer 1917 revolt. The mother of this revolution was the soldiers' longing to be home for Christmas. It sat until 7 April 1919, without any tangible result. ): Wolfgang Michalka u. Gottfried Niedhart (Hg. Aside from SPD and USPD, the Catholic Centre Party took part, and so did several middle-class parties that had established themselves since November: the left-liberal German Democratic Party (DDP), the national-liberal German People's Party (DVP) and the conservative, nationalist German National People's Party (DNVP). In this endeavour, SPD leftists sought an alliance with the German Supreme Command. From that group emerged the Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) on 1 January 1916. As of December 1916, these were replaced by the journal Spartakus, which appeared irregularly until November 1918. Mehrsprachigkeit Videos; Tipps zum Schreiben von Reden; Abiturkonzentrate - Übersicht. The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. In the decade after 1900, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) was the leading force in Germany's labour movement. "Novemberrevolution" published on by Oxford University Press. The following day, the new government offered to the Allies the truce that Ludendorff had demanded. Research concerning the composition of the Worker's and Soldier's Councils which today can be easily verified by sources is undisputed to a large extent, but the interpretation of the revolutionary events based on this research has been already criticised and partially modified since the end of the 1970s. In Holtenau (the end of the canal in Kiel), they were taken to the Arrestanstalt (military prison) in Kiel and to Fort Herwarth in the north of Kiel. With 37.4% of the vote, the SPD became the strongest party in the Reichstag and secured 165 out of 423 deputies. It was especially the USPD that took over[clarification needed] their demands, one of which was to delay elections as long as possible to try to achieve a fait accompli that met the expectations of a large part of the workforce. eine Revolution? Made in Mettmann. The Spartacist League's demands of 7 October for a far-reaching restructuring of the economy, the army and the judiciary – among other things by abolishing the death penalty – had not yet been publicised. In the end, the right-wing extremists were successful, and the Weimar Republic came to an end with the ascent of Hitler and the National Socialist Party. Trotz der aussichtslosen Lage rief die deutsche Marineleitung am 24. Der Erste Weltkrieg brachte viele Verluste 2. Leon Trotsky observed that the October Revolution could not have succeeded if Lenin had remained stuck in Switzerland.[7]. After the Supreme Command had passed from the emperor to the Imperial Government, the German Empire changed from a constitutional to a parliamentary monarchy. Wenn man sich nun näher anschauen möchte, was denn genau die Novemberrevolution war, muss man sich zuerst vorstellen, in welchem Zustand Deutschland im November 1918 war. Although he wanted to regard it as only a coup d'état, he analysed the actual course of events more clearly than most of his contemporaries. In the eight weeks of double rule of councils and imperial government, the latter always was dominant. Yesterday afternoon it was all gone.[24]. In the following days, the dynastic rulers of all the other German states abdicated; by the end of the month, all 22 German monarchs had been dethroned. "[33], With all the differences concerning details, historical researchers agree that in the German Revolution, the chances to put the republic on a firm footing were considerably better than the dangers coming from the extreme left. In the first months of 1919, there were further armed revolts all over Germany. The chain fell off and the freed stood amazed, helpless, embarrassed and needed to arm against their will. After the outbreak of the Russian February Revolution in 1917, the first organised strikes erupted in German armament factories in March and April, with about 300,000 workers going on strike. In 1945 there really was a breakdown.Certainly a mutiny of sailors started the revolution in 1918 but it was only a start. (* Fritz is the colloquial term for Friedrich like Willy – William) Nachdem Reichskanzler Max von Baden selbstständig die Abdankung des Kaisers verkündete, rief Philipp Scheidemann die Deutsche Republik aus. Okt. [7] European communists had long looked forward to a time when Germany, the homeland of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, would undergo such a revolution. They could not have done Ebert a bigger favor, since he had let them participate only under the pressure of revolutionary events. To further undermine the Republic's credibility, right-wing extremists (especially certain members of the former officer corps) used the Dolchstoßlegende to blame an alleged conspiracy of Socialists and Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I, largely drawing fuel from the fact that eight out of the ten leaders of the communist revolution were Jewish. On 29 September, the Supreme Army Command, at army headquarters in Spa, Belgium, informed Emperor Wilhelm II and the Imperial Chancellor Count Georg von Hertling that the military situation was hopeless. If it is to last, it must be realised with democratic means. Lenin and Trotsky also believed at the time that all of Europe would soon see world revolution and proletarian internationalism, and bourgeois nationalistic interests as a framework to judge the treaty would become irrelevant. What troubled Ebert most was that he could not now act as chancellor in front of the councils, but only as chairman of a revolutionary government. As USPD chairman Hugo Haase was in Kiel and the deliberations went on. The fact that a revolution by the working class in Germany never happened could be put down to the "subjective factor", especially the absence of a "Marxist-Leninist offensive party". For their part, the employers guaranteed to introduce the eight-hour day, which the workers had demanded in vain for years. Nov 7 The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year. In order to create an executive committed to the revolution and to the future of the new government, the councils for the moment claimed only to take over the supervision of the administration from the military commands. Authors like Ulrich Kluge, Eberhard Kolb and Reinhard Rürup argued that in the first weeks of the revolution the social base for a democratic redesign of society was much stronger than previously thought and that the potential of the extreme left was actually weaker than the MSPD's leadership, for example, assumed. On 5 November, the Entente Powers agreed to take up negotiations for a truce, but after the third note, many soldiers and the general population believed that the emperor had to abdicate to achieve peace. In the afternoon, the train stations and the newspaper district with the offices of the middle-class press and Vorwärts were occupied. The so-called "Spartacist Uprising" that followed originated only partially in the KPD. In the following years, both parties were unable to agree on joint action against the Nazi Party, which dramatically grew in strength as of 1930. November 1918. Right-wing extremists were opposed to any democratic system, preferring instead an authoritarian state similar to the Empire founded in 1871. Die Revolution von 1918, ihre Voraussetzungen, ihr Verlauf und ihre Folgen. November 1, 1918 (Friday) Liberation of Serbia, Albania and Montenegro – The Serbian First Army under command of Petar Bojović liberated Belgrade from the control of the Central Powers. According to Erdmann, 1918/19 was about the choice between "social revolution in line with forces demanding a proletarian dictatorship and parliamentary republic in line with the conservative elements like the German officer corps". The Nazi Party later compensated the few that had been tried or even jailed, and they merged the Gardekavallerie into the SA (Sturmabteilung). Again they carried placards and banners that proclaimed, "Brothers, don't shoot!" Although Ebert had saved the decisive role of the SPD, he was not happy with the results. Both SPD and USPD favoured placing at least heavy industry under democratic control. To prevent this development, the union leaders under Carl Legien and the representatives of big industry under Hugo Stinnes and Carl Friedrich von Siemens met in Berlin from 9 to 12 November. [15]. In the first days of August, the editors believed themselves to be in line with the late August Bebel, who had died the previous year. Kleist, "Die Marquise von O....", Materialien. Not a chain was broken by the swelling of spirit and will, but a lock merely rusted through. The revolt soon precipitated a general revolution in Germany that would sweep aside the monarchy within a few days. In an interview given to "Der Spiegel" in 1962 and in his memoirs, Pabst maintained that he had talked on the phone with Noske in the Chancellery,[19] and that Noske and Ebert had approved of his actions. Die Oktoberverfassung 1918 The failure of the Weimar Republic that this revolution brought into being and the Nazi era that followed it obstructed the view of these events for a long time. ), bei der viele Matrosen festgenommen wurden; ihnen drohte: Kriegsgericht und Todesstrafe Matrosenrevolte aus SolidaritätVerlauf: 3. After the SPD leadership under Friedrich Ebert excluded the opponents of the war from his party, the Spartacists joined with so-called revisionists such as Eduard Bernstein and centrists such as Karl Kautsky to found the fully anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) under the leadership of Hugo Haase on 9 April 1917. A part of the Revolutionary Stewards armed themselves and called for the overthrow of the Ebert government. On 2 December 1914, Liebknecht voted against further war bonds, the only deputy of any party in the Reichstag to do so. Novemberrevolution (1918 1919) - Ursachen, Verlauf und Folgen - Referat : die Macht in den meisten Städten. Am 14. The slogan "Peace and Bread" (Frieden und Brot) was raised, showing that the sailors and workers demanded not only the release of the prisoners but also the end of the war and the improvement of food provisions. Ralf Hoffrogge, Working-Class Politics in the German Revolution. Daher wurde am 9. The sailors did not exploit the situation to eliminate the Ebert government, as would have been expected from Spartacist revolutionaries. The Reichstag had not been summoned since 9 November. In Leipzig, Hamburg, Bremen, Chemnitz, and Gotha, the Workers' and Soldiers' Councils took the city administrations under their control. The USPD demanded an immediate end to the war and a further democratisation of Germany but did not have a unified agenda for social policies. From 1920 to 1923, nationalist forces continued fighting against the Weimar Republic and left-wing political opponents. On the one hand, the Weimar Constitution offered more possibilities for a direct democracy than the present Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, for example by setting up a mechanism for referenda. The SPD worried that the revolution would end in a Council (Soviet) Republic, following the Russian example. Die Novemberrevolution - Ausruf zur Republik November 1918 1. Again Noske employed the Gardekavallerie-Schützendivision, commanded by Pabst, against the strikers in Berlin. 15918, Krankenbuchlager Berlin, zit. Download: Die Novemberrevolution 1918: Verlauf und These • Download Link zum vollständigen und leserlichen Text • Dies ist eine Tauschbörse für Dokumente • Laden sie ein Dokument hinauf, und sie erhalten dieses kostenlos • Alternativ können Sie das Dokument auch kаufen Neither the early announcement of the emperor's abdication, Ebert's assumption of the chancellorship, nor Scheidemann's proclamation of the republic were covered by the constitution. [5] The American entry into World War I on 6 April 1917 threatened further deterioration in Germany's military position. [11] This last demand was intended to render the process of democratisation irreversible. Ebert finally succeeded in having this 24-member "Executive Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Councils" equally filled with SPD and USPD members. Bayern im Umbruch. Die Novemberrevolution fand 1918/19 in der Endphase des Ersten Weltkrieges statt. The newly formed Nazi Party, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler and supported by former German army chief Erich Ludendorff, engaged in political violence against the government and left-wing political forces as well. The result was the resignation and radicalisation of the council movement. The convention was demanding a say for the Central Council that it would elect, in the supreme command of the army, the free election of officers and the disciplinary powers for the Soldiers' Councils. Otto Braun clarified the position of his party in a leading article in Vorwärts under the title "The Bolsheviks and Us": Socialism cannot be erected on bayonets and machine guns. After the advance of the troops into the city became known, an SPD leaflet appeared saying, "The hour of reckoning is nigh". The sailors even deposed their commander because they saw him as involved in the affair. With this, the Committee broke off further negotiations on 8 January. After 1945 West German historical research on the Weimar Republic concentrated most of all on its decline. After their experiences with the SPD and the USPD, the Spartacists concluded that their goals could be met only by forming a party of their own, thus they joined with other left-socialist groups from the whole of Germany to found the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).[17]. dict.cc German-English Dictionary: Translation for Novemberrevolution [1918 19] Die Entwicklung von der Monarchie hin zur Demokratie erfolgt teitlich konzentriert beginnend im Oktober 1918, um bereits im November 1918 ihren Höhepunkt zu erreichen. Gustav Noske, who had been People's Representative for Army and Navy for a few days, accepted the premium command of these troops by saying, "If you like, someone has to be the bloodhound. There was an amnesty for all political prisoners. German November Revolution 1918-. This open opposition against the party line put Liebknecht at odds with some party members around Haase who were against the war bonds themselves. Instead, it sought to peacefully integrate them into the new social democratic system. Like the workers, they organized their revolt through revolutionary shop stewards. Denn mit November 1918 war die Sache in Deutschland ja noch lange nicht gegessen. With this arrangement, the unions had achieved one of their longtime demands, but undermined all efforts for nationalising means of production and largely eliminated the councils. November dankt der Kaiser ab. The November Revolution ended the Kaiserregime in Germany but failed, in the end, as a socialist revolution. In breach of Souchon's promise, separate troops advanced to end the rebellion but were intercepted by the mutineers and sent back or decided to join the sailors and workers. The first proclamation he had issued on 9 November was addressed "to the citizens of Germany". In addition, the government of Imperial Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg threatened to outlaw all parties in case of war. The duties of the imperial civilian administration and office bearers such as police, municipal administrations and courts were not curtailed or interfered with. He offered the USPD participation in the government and was ready to accept Liebknecht as a minister. The councils deposed the management of the Leuna works, a giant chemical factory near Merseburg. Rosa Luxemburg's body was thrown into the Landwehr Canal that ran through Berlin, where it was found only on 1 July. As in the previous November,[weasel words][according to whom? Hindenburg and Ludendorff persisted with ruthless strategies aimed at achieving military victory, pursued expansionist and aggressive war goals and subjugated civilian life to the needs of the war and the war economy. Bavaria was the first member state of the German Empire to be declared a Volksstaat, the People's State of Bavaria, by Kurt Eisner of the USPD who asserted that Ludwig III had abdicated his throne via the Anif declaration. By 7 November, the revolution had seized all large coastal cities as well as Hanover, Brunswick, Frankfurt on Main, and Munich. On the other hand, Article 48 granted the president the authority to rule against the majority in the Reichstag, with the help of the army if need be. Schalte jetzt Deinen AdBlocker aus und aktualisiere diese Seite. Not even Karl Liebknecht had managed to get a seat. Reichskanzler Max von Baden verk… bei Dirk, Dähnhardt. At the insistence of USPD representatives, the Council of People's Representatives appointed a "Nationalisation Committee" including Karl Kautsky, Rudolf Hilferding and Otto Hue, among others. During the night of 29–30 October 1918, some crews refused to obey orders. In his autobiography, Ludendorff's successor Groener states, "It suited me just fine, when the army and the Supreme Command remained as guiltless as possible in these wretched truce negotiations, from which nothing good could be expected".[10]. The German Revolution is still to take place.[26]. The sailors' revolt started in the Schillig Roads off Wilhelmshaven, where the German fleet had anchored in expectation of battle. Novemberrevolution 1918. Die Menschen demonstrierten für ein Ende des Krieges und die Abdankung des Kaisers. From then on, the Imperial Chancellor and his ministers depended on the confidence of the parliamentary majority. Es brachen Streiks und Demonstrationen aus. But military power in Berlin once more was in the hands of the People's Navy Division. musste abdanken. ("I no longer see parties, I see only Germans!").[4]. On one side, this restraint demonstrates that the sailors were not Spartacists, on the other that the revolution had no guidance.